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Why it’s as hard to escape an echo chamber as it is to flee a cult | Aeon Essays
aeon.co
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echo chambers and epistemic bubbles... systematically exclude sources of information... exaggerate their members’ confidence in their beliefs... work in entirely different ways... epistemic bubble is when you don’t hear people from the other side. An echo chamber is what happens when you don’t trust people from the other side...‘epistemic bubble’ …

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff
www.theguardian.com
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all recorded, rendered as data, processed, analysed, bought, bundled and resold like sub-prime mortgages...not some dystopian imagining of the future, but the present... the totality of information about our every thought, word and deed... traded for profit in new markets based on predicting our every need – or producing it... tech giants unilate…

Ten Ways Cognitive Biases Impact Data Design Work - Nightingale - Medium
medium.com
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There are about 175 known cognitive biases to date. I will share some of the ones that I think are the most significant for designers... It is important that we not learn about biases to simply point out errors in others... we [need] to spot errors in our own thinking ...confirmation bias ... conservatism bias ... [influence us] to select and use …

Opinion | Trump Is Staking Out His Own Universe of ‘Alternative Facts’ - The New York Times
www.nytimes.com
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In less than a year... weekly church-attending white Protestants convinced that Donald Trump was anointed by God to be president grew from 29.6 percent to 49.5 percent... Capitalizing on that devotion is integral to Trump’s re-election ...all-enveloping digital campaign website... campaign app... a self-contained, self-reinforcing arena where Trum…

Opinion | The Media Is Broken - The New York Times
www.nytimes.com
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journalism primarily do one thing: cover events... The internet has sped up the news cycle. Now we put more emphasis on covering the last event... But ... events in this era have ceased to drive politics...impeachment... Mueller investigation ... “Access Hollywood” tapes... barely leave a trace on the polls...Events don’t seem to be driving politi…

A cognitive scientist explains why humans are so susceptible to fake news and misinformation » Nieman Journalism Lab
www.niemanlab.org
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How fake news gets into our minds, and what you can do to resist it... to understand why it gets into our mind... by examining how memory works and how memories become distorted.... Fake news often relies on misattribution ... we retrieve things from memory but can’t remember their source... one of the reasons advertising is so effective... Repe…

The Psychology of Belief
medium.com
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The systems in the brain that light up when we access our beliefs are the same systems that help us understand stories... the same brain systems involved when people think about who they are and about the beliefs that are most important to them... the default mode network, a set of interconnected areas of the brain associated with identity and sel…

Liberals and Conservatives React in Wildly Different Ways to Repulsive Pictures
medium.com
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a recent strand of experimental psychology suggests, our political beliefs may have something to do with ... our propensity to feel physical disgust.... The brains of liberals and conservatives reacted in wildly different ways to repulsive pictures... different brain networks were stimulated... the subjects’ neural responses... could predict with …

The Curse of Knowledge Bias – UX Planet
uxplanet.org
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The curse of knowledge is a cognitive bias that occurs when an individual, communicating with other individuals, unknowingly assumes that the others have the background to understand... seen at all levels of a company... if you already know the answer... tend to underestimate the difficulty of the question or the problem... become so immersed in t…

Naive Realism - YANSS 101
youarenotsosmart.com
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naive realism, the tendency to believe that the other side is wrong because they are misinformed, that if they knew what you knew, they would change their minds to match yours... maybe WE are the ones who are wrong. We never go into the debate hoping to be enlightened, only to crush our opponents... When confronted with people who disagree, you t…

How to Escape the Fear Virus in a Digital World
medium.com
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the Oxford Circus panic ... was amplified by social media.... Fear can be transmitted digitally as easily as it can physically—and that’s a problem because digital technologies reach everyone.... the English-speaking world is in the middle of a fear pandemic... Cognitive biases leave us ill-equipped ... Amygdala hijacks and warped media business m…

At Yale, we conducted an experiment to turn conservatives into liberals
www.washingtonpost.com

the more fear a 4-year-old showed in a laboratory situation, the more conservative his or her political attitudes were found to be 20 years later... fear center of the brain, the amygdala, is actually larger in conservatives than in liberals.... no one had ever turned conservatives into liberals. Until we did.... Imagining being completely safe…

03/12/2018
Optimism Bias – YANSS 105
youarenotsosmart.com
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about 80 percent of people, the brain overestimates the likelihood of future good events and underestimates the odds of future bad events... our built-in optimism bias.

Moral Arguments - YANSS 114
soundcloud.com
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How do you persuade the people on the other side to see things your way?... the answer is in learning how to cross ... the empathy gap. When we produce arguments, we do so from within our own moral framework and in the language of our moral values. Those values rest on top of a set of psychological tendencies influenced by our genetic predispos…

The power of fiction to change people’s minds – YANSS 113
youarenotsosmart.com
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One of the most effective ways to change people’s minds is to put your argument into ... a story — but not just any story. The most persuasive narratives are those that transport us. Once departed from normal reality into the imagined world of a story, we become highly susceptible to belief and attitude change.... learn from psychologist Melanie C…

The Cassandra Curse
www.npr.org

the psychology of warnings - why some warnings get heard, why many are ignored and the pitfalls of being a prophet.... a vicious cycle ... As the planet warms, the permafrost thaws... dead animals and plants and fungi start to decompose. More decomposition means more carbon released ... means warmer temperatures... even more melting of the permafr…

Complicating the Narratives – The Whole Story
thewholestory.solutionsjournalism.org
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talk-show hosts like journalists ... know how to grab the brain’s attention and stimulate fear, sadness or anger.... We value the ancient power of storytelling, and we get that good stories require conflict, characters and scene. But in the present era of tribalism, it feels like we’ve reached our collective limitations... I met psychologists, med…

Designing to Reward our Tribal Sides – The Mission – Medium
medium.com

The endless search for rewards of the tribe, and the variability that often comes with it, are key components of ... Stack Overflow... over 5,000 questions are posted and answered daily... Many of these answers take hours to complete and require a high degree of technical expertise.... the site’s creators ... put usage limitations ... fear of crea…

Confirmation Bias: Why You Make Terrible Life Choices
medium.com
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Confirmation bias is the human tendency to seek, interpret and remember information that confirms pre-existing beliefs.... insidious. It affects every choice you make. Every. Single. Day. ... without you noticing. Confirmation bias affects you in 3 ways... Why? You seek evidence that confirms your beliefs because being wrong ... means you’re not …

Everyone is sharing this comic about the 'backfire effect' ... but there's a huge catch
mashable.com
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the backfire effect can be hard to replicate in rigorous research... a large-scale, peer-reviewed study ... couldn't reproduce the high-profile 2010 study . ... The trouble is that even when we learn that something is false, we may be able to acknowledge those facts without changing our political position accordingly

Stop Calling It Fake News. – Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
hkspolicycast.org
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it just felt like the conversations that we were having subsequently were actually pretty shallow and actually pretty useless, because we were talking over each other because everybody meant different things... we can only really start talking about interventions if we understand what we’re talking about... I say, “Please don’t use the term.” “Ye…

Our experiment into how voters think shows that they go with their guts
theconversation.com
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my team and I studied how people use different information when it comes to voting... presented voters with ... “Public information” was seen by everyone and referred to as “expert”. “Private information” was given to individuals and referred to “personal opinion”... with a probability of it being correct,... They followed their personal informa…

The Myth of Independent Thought – The Polymath Project – Medium
medium.com
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we evolved to solve complex problems not independently but dependently in a group setting.... the knowledge illusion... much of our “knowledge” is not knowledge in the sense of understanding how things work but ... faith... in other people  -... smart people with PhDs... whatever  -  who I trust to know these things that I do not know.... for tho…

Some groups are smarter than others, and psychologists want to understand why – You Are Not So Smart
youarenotsosmart.com
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to create a team that is collectively intelligent, you likely need to focus on three specific factors that he and his colleagues have identified in their research...

YANSS 103 – Desirability Bias
youarenotsosmart.com
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Confirmation bias... such a prevalent feature of human cognition, that until recently a second phenomenon has been hidden in plain sight. Recent research suggests that something called desirability bias may be just as prevalent in our thinking... When future desires and past beliefs are incongruent, desire usually wins out.

YANSS 063 – How search engines make us feel smarter than we really are – You Are Not So Smart
youarenotsosmart.com
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Habitual googling leads us to mistakenly believe we know more than we actually do ... even when we no longer have access to the internet. The more you use Google, it seems, the smarter you feel without it...

16/09/2017
The best shot at overcoming vaccination standoffs? Having doctors listen
theconversation.com
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Clinicians should aim to understand parents’ values and engage in genuine, respectful conversations; these processes can help vaccine-hesitant parents feel heard and understood... Recognizing cognitive biases ... can also help ... omission bias may lead parents to blame themselves more if a child develops a vaccine-related side effect ... than .…

Trump’s ‘Dangerous Disability’? It’s the Dunning-Kruger Effect - Bloomberg
www.bloomberg.com

the knowledge illusion is a common form of human fallibility, but Trump takes it to an exceptional degree... When asked to explain something, he changes the subject, his confidence in his knowledge unwavering... reflectivity... whether people are likely to be highly deluded about their own knowledge... Low scores on the reflectivity test correlat…

This Is How Your Fear and Outrage Are Being Sold for Profit
medium.com
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Every time you open your phone or your computer, your brain is walking onto a battleground... Your captive attention is worth billions ... This has actually changed how you see the world... walls of code have turned you into a predictable asset — a user that can be mined for attention... by focusing on one over-simplified metric, one that suppor…

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