Tours election technology from 2008 to 2018 "and beyond".
2008: Obama integrated e-mail, cell phones and websites to both convey the candidate’s message and enable his supporters to connect and self-organize - supporting grassroots community. MyBarackObama allowed users to form groups, raise money, organise events, get info on local voters, and stimulated offline activities.
By 2012 Facebook: first real use of data to personalise campaigning by Obama, while GOP's IT project failed.
2016: Clinton built on Obama, incrementally improvements. Trump took the latest off the shelf: social platforms + simple websites, fed by Facebook data. Impact of Cambridge Analytica and Russia's dark ads still contested.
But Trump had "embeds - employees from Facebook, Twitter, and Google, picked for their Republican sympathies, who worked directly in the campaign’s offices". Clinton refused them, and was far less sophisticated in its Facebook advertising: " Clinton’s campaign tested 66,000 distinct ads while Trump’s tested 5.9 million."
Trump's personal style ideal for social media: "provoking outrage won him $5.9 billion worth of free attention from the mainstream media", over double Clinton's.
2018-2020: nothing radically new, but more granular targeting, plus geotargeting & other gimmicks, deepfakes. More pressure on platforms to distinguish fake news from reality.
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