"What does it look like to design a system [the internet] for survivability?" This different question - not design for efficiency, or profitability - led "to different answers, and breakthroughs that made the internet we have today".
Rather than protect something, "the r-selected response ... LOCKSS stands for "Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe," ... Make like a dandelion and spread seeds!... Nature is resilient, in part because it is redundant. It creates lots of decentralized backups... Beavers go about their business, coincidentally creating redundant caches of high-density biodiversity... expand nature’s repertoire of possible behavior in response to change."
In nature, then, resilience is characterised by "Decentralization, Redundancy, Diversity, Adaptability". Compare that to "modern management and machine production... optimizes for the steady state:
To be efficient is to be fragile, and to be fragile, over the long run, is to go extinct. "
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See also: Thinking tools (Overview)